Smart Bitches, Trashy Books


RWA Responds to Plagiarism Allegations
January 11, 2008, 2:38 am
Filed under: Cassie Edwards Investigation

The RWA has released a statement regarding the plagiarism accusations against Cassie Edwards:

There are heated discussions on various loops and blogs regarding the accusations of plagiarism against a published romance author. Some questions have also been raised regarding RWA’s stand on the matter. To be clear, RWA does not condone plagiarism or any type of copyright infringement. (Please see RWA’s Code of Ethics ).

RWA takes all accusations of plagiarism very seriously. RWA also stands behind the idea that guilt or innocence should be determined after a thorough review of all documents and sources, not based on discussions or articles found on the internet or in other news media.

Within RWA, there is a process in place to examine claims of plagiarism made against RWA members. That process includes a set of procedures that affords the individual due process. Any member found to be in violation of RWA’s Code of Ethics is subject to disciplinary action including loss of membership.

According to information RWA has, Cassie Edwards was once a member of RWA and is listed on RWA’s Honor Roll; however, it appears she allowed her membership to lapse four or more years ago. If guilt is admitted or established, RWA will take appropriate steps with regard to the Honor Roll listing.

Members have raised questions about a news article that includes a quote by RWA’s president. The president was asked to give an expert opinion on the issue based solely upon information available in internet blogs. The president does not have enough first-hand information to adequately assess the allegations.

Romance Writers of America

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Official Response from Signet
January 11, 2008, 2:38 am
Filed under: Uncategorized

…and, well, read it yourself.

Signet takes plagiarism seriously, and would act swiftly were there justification for such allegations against one of its authors. But in this case Ms. Edwards has done nothing wrong.

The copyright fair-use doctrine permits reasonable borrowing and paraphrasing of another author’s words, especially for the purpose of creating something new and original. Also, anyone may use facts, ideas and theories developed by another author, as well as any material in the public domain. Ms. Edwards’s researched historical novels are precisely the kinds of original, creative works that this copyright policy promotes.

Although it may be common in academic circles to meticulously footnote every source and provide citations or bibliographies, even though not required by copyright law, such a practice is virtually unheard of for a popular novel aimed at the consumer market.

All credit due to Jane of Dear Author for ferreting out (black-footed or otherwise) the appropriate Signet representative to write to and forwarding the statement to us when she got a response.

Candy says: Here’s a refresher on what constitutes plagiarism and what constitutes copyright infringement. Here it is again in brief:

Plagiarism and copyright infringement sometimes intersect, but not always. The most famous cases we’ve seen–Janet Dailey’s plagiarism of Nora Roberts’ work, for example–do. But it’s entirely possible to plagiarize without infringing on a copyright; all that’s required is copying huge chunks of a work without attribution and passing it off as your own original efforts. If the work has passed into the public domain, or if it isn’t copyrighted, there’s no copyright infringement. It’s also possible to infringe on somebody’s copyright without plagiarizing–if somebody making a movie decides to use a piece of copyrighted music without clearing the rights with the publisher first but acknowledge the musician in the credits, they’ve infringed on a copyright but they haven’t plagiarized.

In short: plagiarism is an ethical issue. It’s concerned with what’s right and what’s not. Copyright infringement is a legal action, and is a way for somebody whose works have been infringed to say “Bitch where my money?” It’s concerned with what’s legal and what’s not.

And that’s all I’m going to say for now.

Sarah says: I’m not qualified or even interested in the legality of the situation, or whether something is within fair-use doctrines. Not a lawyer. Not even in law school.

But I do want to make it explicitly clear that on terms of ethical use, I disagree with Signet and the idea that she’s done nothing wrong.

I’m certainly not a copyright lawyer, and questions of law are not my point. My issue is the ethics of it. Further, I think the ethics of the question are much more important than the legalities. There are a lot of things that can get you failed in English class or fired from a newspaper that are not against the law.

And the idea that she’s done nothing wrong from an ethical stance? Horsepucky. She’s done plenty wrong in my book.

I don’t buy Janet Dailey’s books past or present for that reason. I don’t check them out of the library or read them used. It’s an ethical distinction on my part: as a consumer, I can vote with my wallet. As a reader I can vote with my choices. As a blogger, I can write my opinion. In my opinion, Cassie Edwards’ use of at least 6 documented sources verbatim without attribution or acknowledgment is ethically wrong. It would have been so simple and appropriate to place an acknowledgment at the back of her book. “For more information about the Lakota Indians, I heartily recommend….”

So, let me ask you your opinion, if you haven’t already stated it. From an ethical standpoint, where do you draw the line? Are the usage of passages in Edwards’ books acceptable from an ethical standpoint or not? If you’re a reader or a writer, what do you think?



Cassie Edwards 4: Savage Moon
January 11, 2008, 2:37 am
Filed under: Cassie Edwards Investigation

I went back to my review of Savage Moon, and looked at the following passage, which I joked was “CSI:Shoshone”:

“See the dried material on the very tips of the sharpened stone arrowhead?” Soaring Hawk said, pointing toward it. “The points of these arrowheads have been dipped into a mixture of pulverized ants and the spleen of an animal that has been allowed to decay in the direct rays of the sun,” Soaring Hawk said grimly. “This rotten mixture combined with rattlesnake venom is the deadliest of weapons.”

Saleratus & Sagebrush: People and Places on the Road West By Robert Lee Munkres uses an identical passage and cites its source as The Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies, by Virginia Cole Trenholm and Maurine Carley, published by the University of Oklahoma Press in 1964.

Both books reference a work by John G. Bourke, which I haven’t identified or located.



AP Article Features Response from Cassie Edwards
January 11, 2008, 2:33 am
Filed under: Cassie Edwards Investigation

An Associated Press article has a response from author Cassie Edwards to the allegations that “she lifted work from texts:”

[Edwards] acknowledged that she sometimes “takes” her material “from reference books,” but added that she didn’t know she was supposed to credit her sources.

“When you write historical romances, you’re not asked to do that,” Cassie Edwards told The Associated Press, speaking earlier this week from her home in Mattoon, Ill.

Edwards then asked her husband to get on the phone. He told the AP that his wife simply gets “ideas” from reference books.

“She doesn’t lift passages,” Charles Edwards said, adding that “you would have to draw your own conclusions” on how closely his wife’s work resembles other sources.

The article also quotes plagiarism software detection developer John M. Barrie as saying that she “had indeed lifted material,” and Sherry Lewis, president of the RWA, is also quoted: “It’s not clear-cut to me,” she said. “You can see similarities in the passages, but I’m not qualified to make that assertion.”



Cassie Edwards 5: Savage Beloved
January 11, 2008, 2:30 am
Filed under: Cassie Edwards Investigation

Nikki the Super Badass Researcher contacted me yesterday upon realizing that she had a Cassie Edwards in her possession, and she had access to Google, and she had an hour to spare:

I must admit, it was worse than I feared. My “evidence” file grew to six–6!–pages in Word. The worst part? I have an unsettling feeling that these are not the only questionable sections–simply the only ones I could locate via Google. There’s one passage in particular about the male sage grouse’s mating ritual, of all things, that’s extremely suspect.

One last thing, which I thought was deliciously ironic. The heroine’s name in this book is Candy.

I just made a noise I cannot transcribe accurately, but it was somewhere between a choke and a snort.

Now for the Official Findings.

There were three texts heavily, shall we say, “borrowed” from:

THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey, published in 1904
Available at Google Books
Available in its original form at Archive.org.

CADDOAN TEXTS PAWNEE, SOUTH BAND DIALECT by Gene Weltfish, published in 1937
Available at Google Books

INDIAN BOYHOOD by Charles Alexander Eastman, published in 1902
Available at Google Books.
Available in its original form at Archive.org.

I had to get a bit tricksy when searching CADDOAN TEXTS because it’s only available for viewing snippets via Google–not full text. Luckily, the search function provided enough phrasing to recreate the relevant passages although attempting to verify the scans of the actual words wasn’t possible due to the limited view restriction. I’m confident the search function is accurate, however, and no weirdness thanks to OCR occurred in those sections.

Examples positively identified are pasted below along with their corresponding counterparts in the source material. There are several damning sections, the lengthiest one located on pages 213-214 (yes, it spans two pages) and covers nearly four paragraphs.

I’ve placed the Oddly Similar sections in bold so I hope it carries over to your email programs. Also, I’m pretty sure I caught all my typos but I may have missed one or two. If so, apologies but Y’ALL! My fingers are tired.

. Here’s the side by side that Nikki found and emailed us. Big hat tip and curtsey to Nikki, because this is above and beyond. In many, many ways.

SAVAGE BELOVED
Published by Leisure Books, May 2006
ISBN: 0843952733
Page 84

“There is an ancient legend telling that when the plants fail to come up, the Wichita people will cease to exist.”
[…]
“When the first shoot of corn comes up, an old woman goes there to perform a rite of thanksgiving over the plant,” he said. “She rubs the plant with her hands in blessing, saying, ‘Oh, big bow,’ which means corn stalk. Then she rubs a baby with her hands in a similar fashion, passing on the blessing from the plant to the child.”

He paused, smiled at Candy, then said, “Everyone is happy at the sight of the first plant.”

CADDOAN TEXTS PAWNEE, SOUTH BAND DIALECT by Gene Weltfish
Page 39

When the first shoot comes up an old woman goes there to perform a rite of thanksgiving over the plant. She rubs the plant with her hands in blessing, saying, “Oh, big bow.” Then directly she rubs the baby with her hands in a similar manner, passing on the blessing from the plant to the child. Everyone is happy at the sight of the first plant. There is an ancient legend that states that when the plants fail to come up, we will all cease to exist.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 122

At one side she saw a bed with a mattress made of slender willow rods and coverings of buffalo hide.
Hanging down in front of the bed was a long curtain of buffalo hide, which she could tell could be raised or lowered at will. The half-lowered hide seemed to be painted with war scenes.

THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey
Page 5

The beds consist of mattresses made of slender willow rods and coverings of buffalo hide. Over the bed and hanging down in front, is a long curtain of buffalo hide, which can be raised or lowered at will; this is often painted with war scenes.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 172

“The tattoo on my right arm, that mark in the form of a small cross, is a symbol of the stars and represents a well-known mythical hero among the Wichita. He is called Flint-Stone-Lying-Down-Above, which in my language is spoken as Tahanetsicihadidia, the guardian of the warriors.

THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey
Page 2

On the back of each hand is tattooed a small design resembling the bird’s foot. This is made immediately after the boy has killed his first bird. Up and down the arms and across the breast may be found additional marks in the form of a small cross. […] These crosses are symbols of the stars and represent a well-known mythical hero among the Wichita called “Flint-Stone-Lying-Down-Above” (Tahanetskihadidia), who, as is told in one of the myths, is one of the guardians of the warriors.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 175

“Three concentric circles are tattooed around one nipple of each Wichita woman. These concentric rings prevent the women’s breasts from becoming pendulous in old age.”

THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey
Page 3

The nipple is also tattooed, and around it are three concentric circles. […] They are also told that the concentric rings about the breasts prevent them from becoming pendulous in old age.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 179

“For it is now the Moon of the Strawberries, when bears are seeking green sedges, or roots, anthills, and berries, and when buffalo sharpen and polish their horns for bloody contests among themselves.”

INDIAN BOYHOOD by Dr. Charles Alexander Eastman
Page 54

“I was once an interested and unseen spectator of a contest between a pair of grizzly bears and three buffaloes–a rash act for the bears, for it was in the moon of strawberries, when the buffaloes sharpen and polish their horns for bloody contests among themselves.”


SAVAGE BELOVED by Cassie Edwards
Page 180

“Four of them represent the four world quarters, or gods, while the upward peak is symbolic of Man-Never-Known-On-Earth, or Kinnekasus, the Creator.”

He gestured toward the entranceway. “And the door of all homes of my people is placed on the east side so that the sun may look into the lodge as it rises, while the small circular opening overhead is placed there not only for smoke to escape through, but also so that the sun may look into the lodge at noon, and at night, the star gods are thought to pour down their strength into our homes.”

He then gestured toward the fire pit. “The fire’s place in all my people’s lodges is considered sacred,” he said. “There offerings are made, food is cooked, and medicine is heated.”

THE MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey
Page 5

The four projecting poles outside stand for the four world quarters or gods, while the upward peak is symbolic of Man-Never-Known-on-Earth (Kinnekasus), the Creator in Wichita mythology. It is said that a door is placed on the east side that the sun may look into the lodge as it rises, and that the west door is so placed that the sun may look in as it sets, while through the small circular opening overhead the sun may look in at noon. The south door is still retained that the god of the south wind may enter. The fireplace is considered sacred, for here offerings are made, the food is cooked, medicines heated, etc.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 213-214

Each was emptying her bag, dumping the corn into one big heap. The pile soon became so high that it looked as if wagons had been used to haul it instead of the simple carrying bags.
“The next step is to build a long, narrow ditch with mud embankments along each side against which to lean the corn,” Two Eagles explained.
[…]
“They will build a big fire and throw the ears into it,” Two Eagles said. “The women will take turns reaching their hands in and out of the flames to turn the ears over. They are skilled at doing this, and no one ever burns herself. When the wood burns down, the naked ears are left to roast in the coals. Sometimes the ears roast all night, as this gives them a delicious flavor, but today the women will just leave the corn in until the sun begins lowering in the sky. Then whatever husks remain on the corn will be removed and the women will proceed to cut the kernels from the cobs. For this purpose they will use a clam shell, but kernels from small-grained ears are removed with a knife.”
[…]
Candy saw some of the women spreading large hide covers over the ground, then pegging them down tight until they were smooth.
[…]
“The kernels of the roasted corn will be spread out there,” he said. “The blue corn will be separated into three groups by size, small medium, and large. Then they will be winnowed and put into sacks made of tanned hide. After each sack is full, the women will beat upon it with a long stick to make sure that the grains are settled compactly into the bag. They will place a lid inside the bag and pull the drawstring closed. After all the bags are filled, there will be a big pile of them.”

CADDOAN TEXTS PAWNEE, SOUTH BAND DIALECT by Gene Weltfish
Page 40

Then they would dump them into one big heap. The pile would be so high that it looked as if wagons had been used to do the hauling instead of the simple carrying bags. The next step was to build a long narrow ditch with mud embankments along each side against which to lean the corn.

Then they would build a big fire and throw the ears of corn into it. One would have to stick one’s hand in and out of the flame repeatedly to turn the ears over, but one would never burn oneself. When the wood has burned down the naked ears are roasted in the coals. The corn would be left to roast all night as this gives it a delicious flavor.

Kernels from small-grained ears were removed with a knife. Large hide covers were then spread out upon the ground and pegged down tight so that they would be very smooth and upon these the kernels were spread out to dry.

When the kernels were dry they were winnowed and put into sacks made of tanned hide. After each sack was full they would beat upon it with a long stick to make sure the grains settled compactly into the bag. Then they would place a lid inside the bag […] pull the drawstring. After we had filled them there would be a big pile of bags.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 220

Still in their pods, the beans had been spread out upon a hide pegged to the ground. When the beans had dried, they were beaten with a stick to release them from the pods. Finally the beans were winnowed and then packed in bags.
[…]
The first step was to peel the pumpkins. Then some were cut spirally into strips from top to bottom, while others were cut into rings and hung on a cross-pole to dry.

After the whole pumpkin had been stripped, there was a disc left at the bottom, which was known as the “Sitting One.” The pumpkin pieces were then left to dry for about a day. Afterward, the women gathered again to complete the process. The pumpkin strips were braided and formed into mats, which were left out in the sun to dry.

CADDOAN TEXTS PAWNEE, SOUTH BAND DIALECT by Gene Weltfish
Pages 40-41

The beans in their pods would be spread out upon a hide which was pegged to the ground and when they were dry would be beaten with a stick to release them from the pods.
[…]
The first step was to peel the pumpkins. Then if it is decided that braided pumpkin mats are to be made, the pumpkins are cut spirally into strips from top to bottom. Other pumpkins are cut into rings and hung on a cross pole to dry. After the whole pumpkin has been stripped there is left a disc at the bottom which is known as “Sitting-one.” The pumpkin is then left to dry for about a day when it is in the proper stage for braiding and for the stringing of the bottom discs. After they are braided, the pumpkin mats are left out in the sun to dry.


SAVAGE BELOVED
Page 231

“The moon is the special guardian of Wichita women, for the moon is a woman and possesses all the powers that women desire. It was the moon taught the first woman on earth and gave her power. She instructs women as to the time of the monthly sickness, informs them when they are pregnant, and when the child is to be born. She has told them that after birth the child must be offered to her by passing the hands over the child’s body and raising it aloft to the moon. At that time the moon is asked to bestow her blessings upon the child, that he or she may grow into power rapidly, for she, herself, has the power to increase rapidly in size.”

MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey
Page 19

The Moon is the special guardian of the women, for she is a woman and possesses all the powers which women desire. She it was who taught the first woman on earth and gave her power. She instructs the women as to the time of the monthly sickness, informs them when they are pregnant, and when the child is to be born, and has told them that after birth the child must be offered to her by passing the hands over the child’s body and raising it aloft, offering it to the Moon, at which time she is asked to bestow her blessing upon the child, that he may grow into power rapidly, for she herself has the power to increase rapidly in size.


SAVAGE BELOVED by Cassie Edwards
Page 340

“That star in the north is known as the ‘Ghost-Bear,’” Two Eagles said. “It is said that a man who was traveling in the far north came upon another man who said, ‘This is my burial place. I live in the far north. If you accept whatever I offer you, I will give you power. You shall have power over the herbs to cure people, for I am a medicine man. If an accident should happen, or if sickness should arrive, I will give you a way to heal. In your doctoring you should look to the sun, for my powers are derived from him. Before you begin doctoring, offer me smoke.’ The man was then informed that it was the Ghost Bear who was talking to him, and upon looking again, he saw that it was a Ghost Bear. The man looked back and the Ghost Bear had become a star.”

MYTHOLOGY OF THE WICHITA by George Amos Dorsey
Page 18

Next in importance is a star in the north known as the “Ghost-Bear.” This star is of comparatively recent origin, for it is said that a certain man who traveled in the far north saw a human being standing before him, who said to him: “This is my burial place. I live in the far north. There I live. Should you like some of my power, and should you accept whatever I offer you I will give you power. You shall have the power over the herbs to cure people, for I am a medicine-man. If an accident should happen, or if sickness should arise, I will give you a way to heal, and in your doctoring you should look to the Sun, for my powers are derived from him. Before you begin doctoring, offer me smoke.” Thereupon the man was informed that it was the Ghost-Bear who was talking to him, and upon looking again he saw that it was a Ghost-Bear. The man looked back and the Ghost-Bear had become a star.



Cassie Edwards 3: Running Fox
January 11, 2008, 2:25 am
Filed under: Cassie Edwards Investigation

After I received the email from Candy indicating her friend Kate had found passages in a Cassie Edwards novel that were identical to other sources available online, I went upstairs to my stash of Cassie Edwards (Gee, Thanks Lilith and Candy!) and flipped through them to see if I could find any language that didn’t fit, or any sections that did not match the prose immediately preceding or following.

Below is what I found.

From Running Fox by Cassie Edwards
Copyright: 2006
First printing: December 2006
ISBN: 0-451-21996-1
Signet Historical Romance, a division of Penguin Putnam

Page 94-95

“There are small cakes made from berries of all kinds that are gathered by my people’s women, then dried in the sun. The dried foods are used in soups, to, and for mixing with the pounded jerked meat and fat to form a much prized delicacy.”

He saw her eyes move to the vegetables. “You can eat a strip of teepsinna. It is starchy but solid, with a sweetish taste.” He smiled as his eyes dropped to her waist, and then he gazed into her eyes again. “It is also fattening.”

“What else is on the platter?” Nancy asked, still hesitant about what to eat and ignoring what he had said about one vegetable being fattening.

“There is also some wild sweet potato, which is found in the riverbeds….”

“Tiny mice gather wild beans for their winter use,” Running Fox said, smiling slowly at her reaction. “The storehouses for these beans, made by the animals, are under a peculiar mound which the untrained eye is unable to distinguish from an anthill. There are many pockets underneath, into which the animals gather their harvest. Usually in the month that white people call September, a woman comes upon a suspected mound, usually by accident. The heel of her moccasin might cause a place to give way on the mound. She then settles down to rob the poor mice of the fruits of their labor.”

“More, more, more!”

From Indian Boyhood by Charles Alexander Eastman
Copyright: Bibliobooks 2007
First printing: 1902
ISBN: 978-1-4264-7279-4 Available via Google:Books and World Wide School.orgChapter 10, Section III: Wild Harvests

“After all, the wild Indians could not be justly termed improvident, when their manner of life is taken into consideration. They let nothing go to waste, and labored incessantly during the summer and fall to lay up provision for the inclement season. Berries of all kinds were industriously gathered, and dried in the sun. Even the wild cherries were pounded up, stones and all, made into small cakes and dried for use in soups and for mixing with the pounded jerked meat and fat to form a much-prized Indian delicacy.

Out on the prairie in July and August the women were wont to dig teepsinna with sharpened sticks, and many a bag full was dried and put away. This teepsinna is the root of a certain plant growing mostly upon high sandy soil. It is starchy but solid, with a sweetish taste, and is very fattening….

There was another root that our people gathered in small quantities. It is a wild sweet potato, found in bottom lands or river beds.

The primitive housekeeper exerted herself much to secure a variety of appetizing dishes; she even robbed the field mouse and the muskrat to accomplish her end. The tiny mouse gathers for her winter use several excellent kinds of food. Among these is a wild bean which equals in flavor any domestic bean that I have ever tasted. Her storehouse is usually under a peculiar mound, which the untrained eye would be unable to distinguish from an ant-hill. There are many pockets underneath, into which she industriously gathers the harvest of the summer.

She is fortunate if the quick eye of a native woman does not detect her hiding-place. About the month of September, while traveling over the prairie, a woman is occasionally observed to halt suddenly and waltz around a suspected mound. Finally the pressure of her heel causes a place to give way, and she settles contentedly down to rob the poor mouse of the fruits of her labor.”


From Running Fox by Cassie EdwardsPages 173-174

“I shall begin by explaining my people’s religion to you. The religion of the Lakota consists principally, but not wholly, in the worship of visible things of this world, animate and inanimate. We know of a god and a devil. We call the god Wakantanka….”

Page 175

“Our people’s chief object of worship is Unkteri, the mammoth. We have pieces of the bones of the mammoth in our possession…. The species of mammoth that we worship resembles the buffalo or ox but is of more enormous size than those that wander the earth today. Since it so much exceeded other animals in size, it was only natural that we Lakota adopted it as our chief god. To his worship, our most solemn religious festivals are dedicated….

Even I have found fossil bones, as a young brave…. I found them at the bottom of a river when I went there during water challenges. Those bones are highly prized for magical powers….”

“His Lakota people concluded that unkteri’s dwellings were in the water.”


From “The Dakotas in Minnesota in 1834”
From Collections by the Minnesota Historical Society Volume XII
Published in 1908
Original from The University of MichiganAccessed using Google:Books

Popup Image of Page Available

The religion of the Dakotas consisted principally but not wholly in the worship of visible things of this world animate and inanimate. Their chief object of worship was Unkteri the mammoth though they held many erroneous opinions concerning that extinct species of elephant and did not know that the race was extinct. They had seen bones of the mammoth pieces of which they had in their possession and they were too well acquainted with comparative anatomy not to know that it was a quadruped. They described the species as resembling the buffalo or ox but of enormous size. As they worshipped many other animals it was natural that the mammoth which so much exceeded the others in size should be adopted as their chief god.

To his worship their most solemn religious festivals were dedicated. They supposed that the race was still in existence and as they were not seen on land and their bones were found in low and wet places they concluded that their dwelling was in the water. Their bones were highly prized for magical powers and were perhaps as valuable to them as relics of a saint are to a devout Catholic. A Dakota told me that he had discovered some of the fossil bones in the lake opposite Shakopee but was unable to raise them without some boat larger than a canoe.”



Cassie Edwards 2: Savage Longings
January 11, 2008, 2:23 am
Filed under: Cassie Edwards Investigation

I was a doof and forgot to include all the tables I needed to in my initial entry about the usage of unattributed material in Cassie Edwards novels. I blame law school for disordering my mind. I suppose it’s a good thing anyway, since the table seems to be fucking up our shizznizzle.

At any rate, here’s more Cassie Edwards tastiness, this time from Savage Longings, published by Leisure Books in 1997, ISBN 0-8439-4176-6. In this particular book, I was only able to find usages from only one source text, The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life by George Bird Grinnell. Excerpts quoted under fair use, etc. etc., and please forgive any typos.

From Page 49 of Savage Longings:

The root digger was a slender, sharp-pointed implement which was used to thrust into the ground to pry out the roots. Each digger was made of ash, the point sharpened and hardened in the fire. There was a knob at one end to protect the hand.

From Page 209 of The Cheyenne Indians:

This work was done with the root-digger (his’ so), a slender, sharp-pointed implement to be thrust into the ground to pry out the roots. In modern times the root-digger has been of iron—any sort of an iron bar. In earlier days, however, these implements were of wood, usually ash, the point sharpened and hardened in the fire. One kind of root-digger was two and one-half to three feet long, and had a knob at one end to protect the hand.


From Page 323 of Savage Longings:

Snow Deer had explained to Charles that it was an old Cheyenne custom for visitors to occupy the lodge of some newly married couple who would then sleep elsewhere. She had told him that this was an honor not only to the owners of the lodge but also to the visitor.

From Page 146 of The Cheyenne Indians:

If visitors came to a village, the old custom was for them to occupy the lodge of some newly married couple, who would give them possession and sleep elsewhere. This was an honor to the visitor.


From page 325 of Savage Longings:

The women who belonged to this society created ceremonial decorations by sewing quills on robes, lodge coverings, and other things made of the skins of animals.

Snow Deer had told Charles that the Cheyenne women considered this work of high importance, and when properly performed, it was quite as much respected as were bravery and success in war among the men.

From Page 159 of The Cheyenne Indians:

Of the women’s associations referred to the most important one was that devoted to the ceremonial decoration, by sewing on quills, of robes, lodge coverings, and other things made of the skins of animals. This work women considered of high importance, and, when properly performed, quite as creditable as were bravery and success in war among the men.


From page 330 of Savage Longings:

The old quiller had then asked Becky to hold her hands out in front of her, palms up and edges together. The old woman bit off a piece of a certain root, chewed it fine, and spat it on Becky’s hand. Becky was then instructed in ceremonial motions, passing her right hand over the outside of her right leg, from ankle to hip, her left hand over her right arm from wrist to shoulder, her left hand over her left leg, from ankle to hip, and her right hand over the left arm, from wrist to shoulder.

Then her hands had been placed on her head and passed backward from the forehead.

From Page 160 of The Cheyenne Indians:

The old woman directed the candidate to hold her hands out in front of her, palms up and edges together. The old woman bit off a piece of a certain root, chewed it fine, and spat on the hands ceremonially, and the candidate made the ceremonial motions, passing the right hand over the from ankle to hip, her left hand over her right arm from wrist to shoulder, her left hand over her left leg from ankle to hip, and her right hand over the left arm from wrist to shoulder. Then the hands were placed on the head, and passed backward from the forehead.


Again, keep in mind that these are passages I’ve managed to find on-line; there were many suspicious passages that I couldn’t find source texts for, simply because Google failed and I can’t be bothered to haul my ass to the library. Are there any bored grad students/librarians in the audience who want to help me play Spot the Source Text? I have several passages marked from various other Edwards novels that I can e-mail you, and I’ll post anything you find (with full attribution, of course).